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Answering to the propaganda video in the name of “The Sacred City” of Dan Gibson

Translator-Abdul Majed Bin Sayeed 

Challenging the location of Mecca, the pilgrimage site of Islam, a man named Dan Gibson made a documentary video called “ The Sacred City”. This documentary has been dubbed to many languages and the Bengali form is “ The Sacred City—in the search of exact birthplace of Islam.

He made this documentary on the basis of his book “ Qur’anic Geography”. There, the so-called researcher claimed that Mecca was not the birthplace of Muhammad ( ﷺ ) but Petra which is in Jordan. Not only that, he claimed that everything related with Mecca , such as the Kaaba was actually in in Petra.

He has tried to prove that Muslims have been praying in the wrong direction and performing pilgrimage in a wrong place for so long. During the Abbasid rule, the writers vanished the name of the holy city from Qur’an, Hadith, Sirah and replaced Mecca.

Throughout the ages, so-called researcher and experts have been bizarre doctrines on Islam related issue, with the mission of confusing skeptical Muslims.

This documentary has been dubbed to several tongues and cleverly spreaded over the Muslim world. This is not the first attempt to question about the Islamic Qibla. Christian Missionaries and Orientalists have been raised this kind of allegations in past. In Past, they had tried to lie saying,” the exact Qibla towards Jerusalem”. Now, they are trying to turn our holy Qibla towards Petra.

Dan Gibson one hour twenty five video contains so many wrong and perverted information that its refutation may turn into a huge book. Without going in details, I will briefly mention some fact that will prove that what is shown in documentary is completely wrong and Mecca was the birthplace of Muhammad ( ﷺ ) . I seek tawfiq of Allah.

What Does Mosque Mean?

Dan Gibson is such an expert that he mentioned in his documentary that mosque means a gathering place. He said, in Pre-Islamic era, mosque meant a congregation or gathering place and it became the place of worship in Post-Islamic era!!!

My question where he found the bizarre concept?  ‘سَجَدَ‏’ is the noun of verb and the literally meaning of mosque is the place of prostration.[1]

According to the Islamic terminology, a place of worship is called a mosque. Sheik Muhammad Ibn Salih Al-Utaihmeen ( May Allah have mercy on him ) said in fatwa which is related with mosque and the prayer hall. Here is the fatwa,

“ In a specific meaning, a mosque is a place that has been designated for prayer and has been allocated in permanent, whether it is made of stone, mud or cement or not” [2]

So this doesn’t mean the gathering place. After seeing the vast gathering in the mosques, such an expert had given this argument which is completely based on conjecture. So, we have to think twice to expect something from such an expert.

Do The Ancient Mosques And Documents Mention Mecca?

Dan Gibson, in his document, claimed that he didn’t find the existence of Mecca in any ancient maps. The ancient Historians didn’t talk about Mecca. The previous and ancient name of Mecca is “Bakkah” which is well proved from Judeo-Christian texts to Pre-Islamic proved sources. [3]

Dan Gibson tried to prove that there is no mention of Mecca in many earliest maps and also tried to show the map and also tried to show the map after the thousands year of prophet(ﷺ).

But the name Mecca was mentioned in those maps by different languages. Before the Christ, A Greek Historian Diodorus Siculus (90BC-30BC) had mentioned the Kaaba of Mecca city.[4]

John Reynell Morell said that,

“…historically speaking, Mecca was a holy city long before Mohammed. Diodorus siculus, following agatharcides, relates that not far from the red sea, between the country of the Sabeans and of the Thamudites there existed a celebrated temple, venerated throughout Arabia.”  [5]

There is an article about it in Encyclopedia,

“The reign of the heavenly orbs could not be extended beyond the visible sphere; and some metaphorical powers were necessary to sustain the transmigration of the souls and the resurrection of bodies: a camel was left to perish on the grave, that he might serve his master in another life; and the invocation of departed spirits implies that they were still endowed with consciousness and power. Each tribe, each family, each independent warrior, created and changed the rites and the object of this fantastic worship; but the nation in every age has bowed to the religion as well as to the language, of Mecca. The genuine antiquity of the Caaba (ka’bah) extends beyond the Christian era: in describing the coast of the Red Sea, the Greek historian Diodorus has remarked, between the Thamaudites and the Sabeans a famous temple, whose superior sanctity was revered by ALL THE ARABIANS: the linen or silken veil, which is annually renewed by the Turkish Emperor, was first offered by a pious King of the Homerites, who reigned 700 years before the time of Mahomet (Muhammad)”. [6]

A great Greco-Roman scholar Ptolemy ( Claudius Ptolemy) { 100AD-170AD} from Alexandria. Ptolemy said about Mecca as Makoroba. [7]

“ The New Encyclopedia of Islam’’ said,

“Mecca (Makkah al-Mukarramah, lit ‘Mecca the blessed’). For thousands of years Mecca has been a spiritual center. Ptolemy, the second century Greek geographian  Toyomi  mentioned Mecca, calling it ‘Makoraba’ (Macoraba). Some have interpreted this to mean temple (from Maqribah in south Arabian) but it may also mean ‘Mecca of the Arabs”.[8]

In other words, Greek Geographer tolemy mentioned Mecca, he mentioned it as 'Makoraba'. Even in the map of the second century Greek scholars, there is also mention of Mecca city. The map is as follows: 

Ancient Greek scholar tolemy (100 AD.-170 AD) mentions Mako. The right position of the Makkar right has been shown. [9]

So, before the birth of prophet(ﷺ), there was a clear cut existence in all documents and maps. Then, in which basis, Dan Gibson claimed that he didn’t find the existence of Mecca?

Mother Of All Cities[10]

Dan Gibsonhad repeatedly said in his document that the name of the sacred city was “ mother of all cities’’. He tried to say, “ The Sacred City” was given the name because it was the centre of trade and this proves that the city was petra. In Qur’an, Allah mentions the Mecca city as  Ummul Kura which mens the mother of all cities.

But why this name was given in Qur’an? From the narration of Islamic Historians and Scholars, the creation of Earth started from Mecca and that’s why Mecca was given the name. This is what mentioned in Tafsir. [11]

Dan Gibson used a fake concept about The Sacred City of Islam. There is no connection between mother of all cities and “ center of trade”.

The Center Of Trade

Dan Gibson again claime din his confusing video that Mecca was never trade site and it was outside the commercial route. By saying it, he wanted to prove that Petra was The Sacred City. But fact is there is no established evidence to support his claim. He even didn’t mention any scholar’s name, rather he had said his own fabrication. This remained throughout the documentary.

New world encyclopedia says,

“Academic historians state with certainty only that Mecca was a shrine and trading center for a number of generations before the Prophet Muhammad.” [12]

Encyclopedia Britannica says,

“Ancient Mecca was an oasis on the old caravan trade route that linked the Mediterranean world with South Arabia, East Africa, and South Asia. The town was located about midway between Maʾrib in the south and Petra in the north, and it gradually developed by Roman and Byzantinetimes into an important trade and religious centre. Ptolemy’s inclusion of Macoraba, a city of the Arabian interior, in his Guide to Geographywas long held to show that Mecca was known to the Hellenistic world.” [13]

Jewish Virtual Library mentions about ancient Mecca,

“Mecca's prominence as a trading center also surpassed the cities of Petra and Palmyra.” [14]

“ World’s History pattern of interact ( McDougal Littell) describes Mecca,

By the early 600s, trade routes connected Arabia to the major ocean and land trade routes, as you can see on the map on the next page. Trade routes through Arabia ran from the extreme south of the peninsula to the Byzantine and Sassanid (Persian) empires to the north. Merchants from these two empires moved along the caravan routes, trading for goods from the Silk Roads of the east. They transported spices and incense from Yemen and other products to the west. They also carried information and ideas from the world outside Arabia.

Mecca: During certain holy months, caravans stopped in Mecca, a city in western Arabia. They brought religious pilgrims who came to worship at an ancient shrine in the city called the Ka’aba. The Arabs associated this house of worship with Abraham, a Hebrew prophet and a believer in one God. Over the years, they had introduced the worship of many gods and spirits to the place. The Ka’aba contained over 360 idols brought by many tribes”.[15]

Specifically, we can see that there was a business route in Arabia with other countries and the documents also mention the Kaaba of Mecca. Besides,

the map shows Mecca was the trade in 570 AD.[16]

We have seen that before, Mecca was historically a famous and well known trade center which connected South Arabia, East Africa and South Asia with Mediterranean region. And its fame was surpassed Petra and Palmyras cities.

So, judge the differences between fact and this documentary.

The Temple Of Dusshera

Dan Gibson Tried to match the Kaaba with the Dusshera’s Temple. But there is no narration in the history texts that The Qurayshworshiped in the Dusshera’s Temple. Rather they worshiped some imaginary deities alongside with the Lord of Kaaba.[17]17]

No one never called the Kaaba as the Temple of Dusshera.

The Crying City Petra And Earthquake

Dan Gibson said, the word “Bakkah” or “ Baka” means crying. He claimed this name definitely indicates Petra. Because a lot number of earthquakes were held in Petra and harmed the properties of the people.

Dan Gibson’s website has said on the behalf of his book,

"On 9 July 551, a devastating earthquake reduced most of what remained of Petra to heaps of rubble. It was never rebuilt, and soon the bishops departed and all records came to an end. This earthquake also destroyed many of the towns in the Negev. Many of these were never rebuilt." Gibson D. (2002), pp. 240-241. [18]

Our prophet(ﷺ) born in 570 AD. Dan Gibson’s website and book confess Petra city was destroyed in 551 AD. It means Petra was destroyed before the birth of Prophet(ﷺ). That time Petra was remained in same condition. So, it is clearly proved that prophet(ﷺ) was not from Petra since it was a destroyed city. Dan Gibson by himself said that The Christian Bishops left destroyed Petra.

The City Full Of Plants And The eating Of Grapes By Khubayb (May Allah Be Pleased With him)

There are a lot of narrations about the desert Mecca in the Sirah texts. Ignoring all these details, Dan Gibson said some parts of Khubayb Tragedy to prove that the sacred city of Islam was full of Plants.

In this incident , Khubayb was eating grasp. By showing this, he wanted to prove that grapes can’t be produced in Mecca and this proves Khubayb’s last moment was in Petra. To refute this, I will say,

Firstly, I took that time grape wasn’t produced in Mecca. But if there is no fruit in region, there is no question that the people of that region can never be able to eat it. Even In Bangladesh, Strawberry and Cherry aren’t grown in that way. But the eat these fruits, don’t they? Don’t they import these fruits? In th above, I prove there was a commercial relation between Bilad Al-Shaam ( Levant) and Makkah Al Mukarrama( Mecca ) . From there many things including fruits were also imported and exported. So, it could possible for him to eat grapes.

Secondly, the incident of arrested Sahaba Khubayb was not a simple event. It was a miracle. He was arrested and the Qurayshpersecuted him very roughly. But the persecuting didn’t make him to disobey Allah and His messenger. Allah honored him by this miracle.[19]

It’s nothing but a stupidity of Dan Gibson to match Petra with Mecca by this incident.

Were The Ancient Mosques Really Mosques Really Towards Petra?

Dan Gibson tried to show that the ancient mosques weren’t towards Mecca rather these were towards Petra. The mosques were little far towards Mecca. I will say it was not possible to build mosques towards Mecca accurately. Even in modern day it is also impossible and this is not a necessary subject. Specifically, our earth is round in shape. Therefore, it is never possible to follow the direction of the Qibla exactly. Allah never gives an impossible task [20].

Qibla is a simple direction for Salah. It is enough to keep this aspect in order.

Abu Huraira ( May Allah be pleased with him ) narrated,

“ The messenger of God said, Qibla is between the East and the West.” [21]

So, there is no problem to have some differences for Qibla. But what is the maximum amount of this difference?

According to Sunnah, scholar have a Ijma that the maximum difference can be 45 degrees. But it is better to pray in the right direction as much as possible. [22]

There was no compass before to find the right direction. The Qibla had been identified by observing of the sun and the mosque had been built considering the general aspect of Qibla. So, it is not at all uncommon to have differences for the ancient mosques. If the observing sun was considered to find general direction, then the difference couldn’t be more than 45 degrees. Even in modern day, there are some mosques which don’t follow Qibla exactly. Such as, In Bangladesh, the west is considered as a general direction. But Mecca is located in the direction of south-west of Bangladesh.

In the process that Dan Gibson had tried to make Petra as Qibla by selecting a few ancient mosques, New York city can also be made Qibla by 10 mosques from Bangladesh.

In the modern times where the exact direction cannot be kept right( which is not important ) there this was even more impossible in ancient times . Even, in modern days, there are more than 200 mosques which don’t follow the accurate Qibla.[23]

But these differences are not above of 45 degrees. Therefore, we can say that, if we consider that Dan Gibson’s information is right and if the ancient mosques rotated 10-20 degrees from Mecca, it doesn’t prove that Petra was Qibla.

But the question is did Dan Gibson tell truth?

Dan Gibson tried to show the Qibla of ancient mosques by slides in his document. Anyone can catch his cheatings. He calculated the direction of the Qibla by drawing a line 5-6 degrees from vertical, not perpendicular to the front wall of the mosque.

For example, there are the mosques( Temple Mount or Masjid Al-Aqsa and Guangzhou mosque from China) from documentary below.

The earth is a sphere with a radius of 3983 miles.[24]

So, its one degree can create a huge distance.

Does The Hera Cave Not Really Face Mecca?

Dan Gibson, by showing a cave full of symbol of goddess, claimed that this is the real Hera Cave and that is the place where the boy Muhammad(ﷺ) meditated . He also claimed that Hera Cave doesn’t face Mecca city. So it can’t be the real Hera Cave. How could it possible for this boy who hated these imaginary deities? [25]

May Allah forgive me.

It is big lie on the messenger of God. He also said Muhammad(ﷺ)

Meditated at boyhood. This again exposes the ignorance of Dan Gibson.

We all know that Muhammad(ﷺ) got revelation while meditating in the Hera Cave from The Supreme God. At that time, he was 40 years old. [26]

Every Sirah texts say this. By mentioning a 40 years old person as a boy, Dan Gibson’s lack of basic knowledge about Islam is Clear.

I will say in the regard of this,

“The main purpose of going to the cave to meditate is to keep the attention intact. Light, noise, all these things hinder this main purpose. The person who is going to meditate in a cave, isolated from society, never intends to look at his city from inside the cave. He will choose a cave so that he can gain some isolation from the society. You can focus on your Creator. If the outside of a cave faces the locality, this purpose is thwarted. A geographical analysis of the Hera Cave in Mecca shows that its exterior does not face Mecca directly. But when you come out of the cave, you can easily see Mecca and Masjidul Haram. [27] That is, it was a cave most suitable for meditation. Dan Gibson wants to show us that the cave in which Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) meditated must have been facing his city. But reality may not always follow Dan Gibson's guess!”

Do The Narrations Of Hadith And History Texts Match With Petra City?

Dan Gibson wanted to convince us that the narrations of the sacred city in Hadith and History texts don’t match with Mecca. And these narrations match with Petra. By misinterpretation and showing different clips of narrations, he reached at such decision. He also tried to say, the name Petra was removed and the name Mecca was made.

Now, I will say some narrations from Hadith and Sirah which will apparently prove that the sacred city of Islam is Mecca. Insha_Allah.

It will not be possible to match with Petra in any way.

1>> The sacred city was conquered from the pagan Qurayshin 630 AD.[28].And the Muslim Caliphate invaded Jordan from the Roman in 636 AD [29]. Historically, these are established truth.

If the sacred city of Islam had been Petra, then it would have to invaded in 630 AD from Christian Byzantines because that time Petra was a part of Byzantine Empire. But in Sirah books, the messenger of God conquered the sacred city from the Quraysh in 630 AD and he ended the paganism from the Kaaba [30] .

Muslims never had conquered the sacred city from the Byzantines. Mecca was forever free from others [31].

2>> in all of the sirah books, there is a incident of Abraha, the king of Yemen. The 105 chapter of Qur’an describes this incident [32] .

Abraha, the king of Yemen, made a magnificent church in Sana. But the king felt jealous of the devotion of the people to the Kaaba and he set out for Mecca with an army of elephants to destroy Kaaba. Then Allah sent a floc of birds. These birds threw pebbles of the army of Abraha. This incident became so popular that the Arabs called this year as “ Year Of Elephant” and this year our prophet(ﷺ) was born. All of the Historians referred Mecca, not Petra. That time, this popular event had an impact on geo-politics of that time. This event also was spreaded in the Roman and the Persian region. The Persian had observed this incident and quickly occupied Yemen [33]

It can never to be possible to have campaign in a long distances with huge sized elephants. But it is possible to have campaign in Mecca with this elephant army. The interesting thing is if the Kaaba was situated in Petra, then Abraha’s forces would have to bargain with the Romans to destroy Kaaba because that time Petra was a city of the Byzantines. But we can’t find any kind of narration in this context. Rather, we see that Abraha had a meeting with Abdul Muttalib, the leader of Mecca. So, it proves that Mecca was not under the Byzantines rule.

Again it wasnot necessary ro destroy Kaaba because the Romans were closely friend of them if Abraha informed the king of Byzantines, then he could easily destroy Kaaba. It is an unbelievable thought that Kaaba was in Byzantine Empire .


The sacred city, Mecca was conquered in 8 Hijr( the Islamic calendar) [34].

And the Tabuk campaign took place beside the border of Romans in 9 Hijr [35].

All texts say, the sacred city was conquered before, then the Muslim went for Tabuk campaign. According to Dan Gibson, If the sacred city had been Petra, then there is a question that could the Tabuk campaign be held before the conquest of Petra? Please see the picture below -

We first try to match the historical facts by considering Petra as the sacred city of Islam. Petra was in Bilad Al-Sham of Byzantines. Tabuk is to the south of Petra. If Petra conquered, did the campaign of Tabuk have any rationality from there? Tabuk is on the border of Arabia and Syria. It was the boundary of Byzantine Empire. If Petra had already won, how could there be another campaign against the Byzantine on the border of Tabuk?

The Arabs are on the another side of the border. It was not region of Byzantine Empire, so there was no question of Byzantines coming from there. The Arabs, not the Byzantines, could attack from there. Now, we match the historical truths considering Mecca as the sacred city of Islam. Please take a look on the map. The Byzantine Empire is north from Mecca and Medina. Mecca was conquered before then the next time, they could take steps to move to the Byzantines and the Islamic force could also go there for protecting the land.

Because, after Tabuk, the Byzantines area on the other side of eh border considering Mecca as the sacred city of Islam.

This information fits perfectly. Here no inconsistencies are observed.

4>> The 10 year of revelation, the messenger of God went to Ta’if for preaching. The distance between Ta’if and Mecca is 60 miles [36].

On the other hand, the distance between Petra and Ta’if is 832 miles[37].

Can a person cover this distance by foot? And there was no Ta’if city besides Petra.

5>> Dan Gibson didn’t question about the place of Hijr ( migration ), Medina. If the location of Medina is right, then we can find out the sacred city by considering the location of Medina.

The Quraysh has a business route from Mecca to Syria. They had to go from Mecca to Syria via Medina. Every Sirah texts say this. The Quraysh was on a war with the Muslims and the Sahabas attacked them on this route. In the famous war of Badr, Abi Sufian was coming to Mecca from Syria with caravan which had lots of weapons and other goods. The Sahabas set out to attack them along the way. The opponents also received the news and sent troops from Mecca. Badr was a part of Medina and the war took place here. [38]

A. From Petra to Syria.

B. From Mecca to Syria.

C. The place of Badr.

Syria is very close to Petra. We see here, Medina has the route to go to Syria from Mecca. But to go Syria from Petra, we don’t have to cross Medina. If the sacred city of Islam had been Petra, then the Quraysh didn’t have to cross Medina to go Syria. Then it wouldn’t have possible for Muslims to attack the Quraysh.

The location of Badr is in the route of Mecca to Syria.

If the sacred city of Islam had been Petra, then the war of Badr would not have be happened. Rather it would have happened in another place.


In the beginning of 7thcentury, the people of Jordan used to say in the language of Aramaic. Then the next time, with the expansion of Islam, people started to adopt Arabic as a mother tongue. The Aramaic language became almost extinct and Arabic began to be used in that place [39].

In the 7thcentury, Aramaic was the common language of People [40].

Allah sent every of His messenger in the language of his people [41] .

If he last messenger of God was from Petra, then his language would have been Aramaic.

But the language of Qur’an is not Aramaic, it is Arabic. There were two Arab tribes( Gassanid, Lakhmid) in that region of Levant [42] .

So, there would have been some people who used Arabic. But this Arabic speaking used to say in the dialect of Levantine Arabic. It is an Arabic dialect which was strongly influenced by Aramaic language [43] .

There were two languages ( Arabic , Aramaic ) in the region of Levant. The Arabic dialect of Qur’an is Qurayshi dialect. This is how it was revealed to the messenger of God. In the first instance, the Sahabas arranged for the preservation of Qur’an in this condition.

Narrated from Anas Ibn Malik:

“'Uthman sent a message to Hafsa saying, "Send us the manuscripts of the Qur'an so that we may compile the Qur'anic materials in perfect copies and return the manuscripts to you." Hafsa sent it to 'Uthman. 'Uthman then ordered Zaid bin Thabit, 'Abdullah bin AzZubair, Said bin Al-As and 'AbdurRahman bin Harith bin Hisham to rewrite the manuscripts in perfect copies. 'Uthman said to the three Quraishi men, "In case you disagree with Zaid bin Thabit on any point in the Qur'an, then write it in the dialect of Quraish, the Qur'an was revealed in their tongue."[44]

Even today we read the Qur'an in its unaltered form, which is written in Qurayshi Arabic. The language of Hadith is also Arabic, Muslims use that Arabic in prayers and sermons. The Qur'an is not in Aramaic, nor in the Arabic of Syria, which proves that the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) was not from Petra of Jordan. On the other hand, in the 7th century, Quraysh Arabic was used by the people of Makkah region of Arabia, i.e. Quraysh [45] .

The language of Qur’an proves Muhammad ﷺ was not the man of Petra but Mecca.


Above all, in order to question Makkah, one has to question the other geographical elements mentioned in the Qur'an, Hadith and Sirat, such as the Safa-Marwa Mountains, the Jamm Jamm Wells, the Jabal Noor Mountains, the Abu Qubais Mountains, and the Jabal Rahmat Mountains. The details of all these things are found extensively in the Qur'an, Hadith and Sirat, and all of them are now found in Makkah. Dan Gibson will never be able to match so many things from Petra City. These are only in Makkah. Questioning Al-Quran, huge collection of Hadith, vast Sirat and Tarikh Shastra if Dan wants to say: these are all edited, Petra is Qibla !! I don't think any sane person would take that seriously.

The Futility Of Abdullah Ibn Zubair’s Theory Of Building A Kaaba In New Place

Dan Gibson claimed that after the clash of Umayyed with Abdullah Bin Zubair, the Qibla was replaced to Mecca. One of the Hadith is enough to refute this claim,

Narrated from Aisha. He said, "I asked the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, 'Do the walls of Hatim belong to the House of Allah?' He said yes. I asked again, but why didn't they include it in the temple? He said, "Your people did not have enough money." I asked again, what is the reason for its door being placed high? He said, "That is the duty of your people, so that their desired person may have access to it and the unwanted person may not enter it." If the age of ignorance of your people was not near, and if I had not feared that their hearts might be changed, I would have considered the inclusion of (Hatim's) walls of the House and the gates of the Ka'bah on the ground. [46]

Where the messenger of God himself didn’t change the structure of the Kaaba for fear of sedition there people took the whole Kaaba to another city shortly after his death and everyone accepted it? This is completely an unrealistic fact. Actually if Abdullah Ibn Zubair replaced the Kaaba to another then even not a single person would have pilgrimage there.

Dan Gibson had presented the false story that from Tarikh At-Tabari about Abdullah Ibn Zubair. The Kaaba was burnt down. It was the last period of Yazid Ibn Muabia and he seized Abdullah Bin Zubair in Mecca at that time. The Caliph of Mecca, Abdullah Ibn Zubair, heard the hadith from this hadith from his aunt Ai’sha( may Allah be pleased with her). In view of this, according to the mind of the messenger of God, he demolished the House of God and built it on the foundation of Abraham ( may Allah be pleased with him). He took Hatim inside. Put two doors on the east and the west. Keep the two doors level with the ground. The Kaaba remained so until his reign.

Sahih Muslim says,

Ata' reported:

The House was burnt during the time of Yazid b. Muawiya when the people of Syria had fought (in Mecca). And it happened with it (the Ka'ba) what was (in store for it). Ibn Zubair (Allah be pleased with him) felt it (in the same state) until the people came in the season (of Hajj). (The idea behind was) that he wanted to exhort them or incite them (to war) against the people of Syria. When the people had arrived he said to them: O people, advise me about the Ka'ba. Should I demolish it and then build it from its very foundation, or should I repair whatever has been damaged of it? Ibn 'Abbas said: An idea has occurred to me according to which I think that you should only repair (the portion which has been) damaged, and leave the House (in that very state in which) people embraced Islam (and leave those very stones in the same state) when people embraced Islam, and over which Allah's Apostle (ﷺ) had raised it. Thereupon Ibn Zubair said: It the house of any one of you is burnt, he would not be contented until he had reconstructed it, then what about the House of your Lord (which is far more Important than your house)? I would seek good advice from my Lord thrice and then I would make up (my mind) about this affair. After seeking good advice thrice, he made up his mind to demolish it. The people apprehended that calamity might fall from heaven on those persons who would be first to climb (over the building for the purpose of demolishing it), till one (took up courage, and ascended the roof), and threw down one of its stones. When the people saw no calamity befalling him, they followed him, demolished it until it was razed to the ground. Then Ibn Zubair erected pillars and hung cartains on them (in order to provide facilities to the people for observing the time of its construction). And the walls were raised; and Ibn Zubair said: I heard 'A'isha (Allah be pleased with her) say that Allah's Apostle (ﷺ) had observed: If the people had Rot recently (abandoned) unbelief, find I had means enough to reconstruct it, which I had not, I would have definitely excompassed in it five cubits of area from Hijr. And I would also have constructed a door for the people to enter, and a door for their exit. I today have (the means to spend) and I entertain no fearfrom the side of people (that they would protest against this change). So he added five cubits of area from the side of Hatim to it that there appeared (the old) foundation (upon which Hadrat Ibrahim had built the Ka'ba). and the people saw that and it was upon this foundation that the wall was raised. The length of the Ka'ba was eighteen cubits. when addition was made to it (which was in its breadth), then naturally the length appears to be) small (as compared with its breadth). Then addition of ten cubits (of area) was made in its length (also). Two doors were also constructed, one of which (was meant) for entrance and the other one for exit. When Ibn Zubair (Allah be pleased with him) was killed, Hajjaj wrote to 'Abd al-Malik (b. Marwan) informing him about it, and telling him that Ibn Zubair (Allah be pleased with him) had built (the Ka'ba) on those very foundations (which were laid by Ibrahim) and which reliable persons among the Meccans had seen. 'Abd al-Malik wrote to him: We are not concerned with the censuring of Ibn Zubair in anything. Keep intact the addition made by him in the side of length, and whatever he has added frem the side of Hijr revert to (its previous) foundation, and wall up the door which he had opened. Thus Hajjaj at the command of Abd al-Malik) demolished it (that portion) and rebuilt it on (its previous) foundations. [47]

This is the true history to rebuild and demolish the Kaaba by Abdullah Ibn Zubair. Its purpose was the obedience to God and His messenger. And this doesn’t relate the subject of replacing the Kaaba from Petra to Mecca. Clearly, Sahih Muslim and the tafsir of Ibn Kathir say, he didn’t replace the Kaaba as well as he only rebuilt the Kaaba.

Did Omar The Great ( may Allah be pleased with him ) Really Order To Burn The Library Of Alexandria?

This is not related with this subject. But Dan Gibson took it to establish his false doctrine. According to him, the Muslims have been burnt books, documents, manuscripts e.t.c except Qur’an.

That’s why, any manuscripts from the primary level have not be prove this, he narrated a false story about Omar(Ra) that he had burnt the library of Alexandria. It will take a lot of time to refute this. But I reject in this context , I’m saying the speech of Dr. Ali As-Sallabir which will refute this falsehood insha_Allah.

According to D. Ali As-Sallabir,

“ These narrations were written after a long time of conquest of Egypt and Amr Ibn Al-Ass. This incident has not any narration chain. Any of the historians who wrote about the History of the conquest of Egypt never mentioned this incident. After a period, this incident was written. Wakidi, Tabari, Ibnul Asir, Ibn Khaldun, Ibn Abd Al-Hakeem, Eakut Al-hamaoai, any of them didn’t narrate about Alexandria. This incident was written during Crusade. So, it has a big chance to be a false history. If that so-called library really survived until that time [ the conquest of Egypt by companions] , then the Byzantines were supposed to take the books with them when they left Alexandria.

Besides, Amr Ibn Al-Ass could throw those books in the ocean. This might take few moment. But it took 6 months to burn those books. We can apparently say that Omar Ibn Khattab and Amr Ibn Al-Ass are completely free from this allegation. [48]

Have The Name “ Bakka” Removed from Qur’an?

At the last moment of the documentary, Dan Gibson claimed an allegation that during the Abbasid period, Qur’an was perverted by the authors. He also claimed that Bakka was the name of the sacred city and Bakka became Mecca. Actually no one ever can claim such allegation except stupid.

From the earliest time of Islam, Qur’an was memorized by the Sahabas. It was preserved by memorizing. Most of the Sahabas were Hafizul Qur’an. Even today, there are millions of Hafizul Qur’an. If anyone tries change or replace a word, then it can be easily identified. So, it is impossible to change a word in the written manuscripts whether during the Abbasid Caliphate or in the 21stcentury. Bakka is the ancient name of Mecca. The word “Bakka” is found in 96 verse of surah Al-Imran of the Qur’an. If the Abbasids wanted to remove the word “Bakka’ then why didn’t they remove it from here? If there was such intension at all, they would have vanished the word from this verse as well . The reckless claim of Dan Gibson is being refuted from the verse of Quran.

The Archeological Sign Related With Kaaba And Mecca

Now, I am presenting one another ignorance and falsehood of this such expert. His claim is he didn’t find any archeological sign by going to Mecca by himself. My question is, How did he manage to investigate in Mecca by himself? He is a Non-Muslim. And it is not permissible to enter in Mecca for Non-Muslims [49].

So, it must be a false word from him.

And if he had really been an expert, he would have known that there are many archeological sites related to Mecca in Saudi Arabia. Here is a description of one of the 60 Islamic inscriptions found in Saudi Arabia. It is one of the oldest inscription . It is found in a place called Qa’a Al-Muatadi. It’s period is 644 AD where the period of Omar’s death was written. [50]

Part of what was written in script:

بسم الله

انا زهير كتبت زمن توفي عمر سنة اربع وعشرين

Meaning: In the name of God

I’m Zuhair who is writing this at the time of Omar’s death, in the 24 years of Hijra.

There was introduction of Zuhair in the rest of the script. He was from Bani Salama tribe of Arabia.

We seen that, the archeological sign of 644 AD have found in Saudi Arabia. This was written before the clash between Abd Al-Malik and Abdullah Ibn Zubair which was held from 683 AD to 632 AD. These scripts were written by the Hajj performer [51].

Meaningly, pilgrimage site was not in Petra, it was in Mecca of Saudi Arabia. This is a very famous archeological evidence and the place where it was found is recognized by UNESCO as world heritage site [52].

And this is also written with importance in the website of UNESCO [53].

You can find the nomination form of the archeological evidence in UNESCO’s website, there is a detailed narration [54].

Except it, there were found many archeological sign in Saudi Arabia [55].

This archeological evidence proves the theory of Dan Gibson’s is wrong. There are a lot of articles about Zuhair’s inscription or Omar’s inscription. Dan Gibson is such an expert that he didn’t know the archeological signs of Saudi Arabia which are recognized by UNESCO.

Due to ignorance, he spent a lot of money questioning the place of Qibla , writing book, making documentaries, translating and sponsoring them in many languages. He by himself has been confused. He has shown the way to many skeptical Muslims to be misled. Only a conscious man can ask the question, are all the organization, publicity, spending money just ignorance or something else?


To Allah belongs all that is in the heavens and the earth, and to Allah are all matters referred for decision [56]

And so We have made you ˹believers˺ an upright1 community so that you may be witnesses over humanity and that the Messenger may be a witness over you. We assigned your former direction of prayer only to distinguish those who would remain faithful to the Messenger from those who would lose faith. It was certainly a difficult test except for those ˹rightly˺ guided by Allah. And Allah would never discount your ˹previous acts of˺ faith. Surely Allah is Ever Gracious and Most Merciful to humanity.

indeed, We see you ˹O Prophet˺ turning your face towards heaven. Now We will make you turn towards a direction ˹of prayer˺ that will please you. So turn your face towards the Sacred Mosque ˹in Mecca˺—wherever you are, turn your faces towards it. Those who were given the Scripture certainly know this to be the truth from their Lord. And Allah is never unaware of what they do.

Even if you were to bring every proof to the People of the Book, they would not accept your direction ˹of prayer˺, nor would you accept theirs; nor would any of them accept the direction ˹of prayer˺ of another. And if you were to follow their desires after ˹all˺ the knowledge that has come to you, then you would certainly be one of the wrongdoers.

Those We have given the Scripture recognize this ˹Prophet˺ as they recognize their own children. Yet a group of them hides the truth knowingly.

˹This is˺ the truth from your Lord, so do not ever be one of those who doubt.[57]

He is the One Who held back their hands from you and your hands from them in the valley of ˹Ḥudaibiyah, near˺ Mecca, after giving you the upper hand over ˹a group of˺ them.1 And Allah is All-Seeing of what you do.[58]


[1]. “مسجد - Wiktionary”

[2]. .

Fatwa of Sheikh Uthaimin: 12/394


[4]. Edward Gibbon (Introduction by Christopher Dawson), Gibbon's Decline And Fall Of The Roman Empire, Volume V, Everyman's Library, London, pp. 223-224

[5]. Turkey, Past and Present: Its History, Topography, and Resources By John Reynell Morell, page 84

[6]. Encyclopaedia Britannica: Or, A Dictionary of Arts, sciences and Miscellaneous Literature Constructed on a Plan volume 2, by Colin Macfarquhar page 183 – 184

[7]. “Mecca _ History & Pilgrimage _”

[8]. The New Encyclopedia of Islam by Cyril Glasse page 302

[9]. Mecca before Islam_ 2) Macoraba – Ian D. Morris”

[10].Qur’an 6:92

[11]. Tafsir of 6:92 Baghbi, Fathul kabir ( Tafsir of Abu Bakr Muhammad Zakariya, p. 649 Bangladesh)

[12]. ““Mecca - New World Encyclopedia”

[13]. Mecca _ History & Pilgrimage _”

[14]. “Mecca” (Jewish Virtual Library)

[15]. World History –Patterns Of Interaction By Roger B. Beck, Linda Black, Larry S. Krieger, Philip C. Naylor, Dahia Ibo Shabaka, Chapter 10 (The Muslim World) Page 263-264b

[16]. World History –Patterns Of Interaction By Roger B. Beck, Linda Black, Larry S. Krieger, Philip C. Naylor, Dahia Ibo Shabaka, Chapter 10 (The Muslim World) Page 264

[17].Siratunnabi(sa) by Ibn Hisham , 1stpart: page. 98:106 ( Islamic Foundation, Bangladesh )

[18].Nabataea_ The Fall of Petra

19. show details, Ibn Hisham 2nd part p. 169-179 , Za’adul Ma’ad 2ndpart p.199, sahih Bukhari 2nd part 168-169 , Ar Rahikul Makhtum p. 335-335 ( Bangladesh , Note: these references can not be matched with the books you have because many publications in Bangladesh arrange these books in their way)

20.Qur’an 2:286

21. Ibn Mazah Hadith no. 1011 : shaih Tirmithi 342 ( Bangladesh , Note: these references can not be matched with the books you have because many publications in Bangladesh arrange these books in their way)

22. “Being 45 degrees off from the qiblah” – islamQa (Shaykh Muhammad Saalih al-Munajjid)

23. Old Mecca mosques face ‘wrong’ direction (al arabiya news)

24. How Big Is Earth' By Tim Sharp

25.Siratul Mustafa(sa) Idris Kandholoby ( Islamic Foundation Bangladesh) 1st part p.107-109

26.Siratunnabi Ibn Hisham ( Islamic Foundation Bangladesh ) 1st part p. 213

27. “Mount Hira Cave Stock Photos & Mount Hira Cave Stock Images - Alamy”

Mecca and Medina, Old and Recent

Traveling to Makkah | Mountain of Hira/Jabal noor | Hira Guha | Mountain of Al Rahmah in Arafat"

28.Ar rahikul makhtum ( Tawhid Publications Bangladesh) p. 460

29. “Jordan - History - The Islamic Periods and the Crusades”

30.Ar rahikul Makhtum ( Tawhid Publications Bangladesh) p. 457-465

31. Ar rahikul Makhtum ( Tawhid Publications Bangladesh) p.34

32. siratunnabi Ibn Hisham 1st p. 75-87 ( Islamic Foundation Bangladesh)

33. Ar rahikul Makhtum ( Tawhid Publications Bangladesh) p.78

34. Ar rahikul Makhtum ( Tawhid Publications Bangladesh) p.460

35. Ar rahikul Makhtum ( Tawhid Publications Bangladesh) p.491

35.5 . "The Rise of Islam" (Historical Atlas of the Mediterranean)

▪ "Historical Atlas of the Mediterranean" (YouTube)

▪ "Iraq Timeline _ Preceden"

36. Ar rahikul Makhtum ( Tawhid Publications Bangladesh) p.170

37. Google Map: Distance between Petra & Taif

38.Khalifatul Rasulullah Abu Bakr(ra) – D. Ahmad Ali p.136

39. The Ancient Languages of Syria-Palestine and Arabia, edited by Roger D. Woodard; chapter 6, page 10

40. “Aramaic _ Definition of Aramaic in US English by Oxford Dictionaries”

▪“Aramaic language - Wikiwand”

41.Quran 14:4

42. “Syria."Encyclopædia Britannica. 2006. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 20 Oct. 2006 Syria -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia

▪"Ghassan."Encyclopædia Britannica. 2006. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 18 Oct. 2006 Ghassan (ancient kingdom, Arabia) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia

43. Arabic (Levantine) _ About World Languages”

44.Shaih Bukhari 4984 , book 66 hadith 6

45“The Arabic Language_ Origins _ As-Souq Arabic Centre”

46. shaih Muslim 1333j: book 15 hadith 453

47.Tafsir Ibn Kathir ( Hussain Al-Madani Publications Bangladesh) tafsir of 2:126-128 P.379-380

48. Umar Ibn al-Khattab – His Life & Times by Dr. Muhammad Ali al-Sallabi, volume 2, page 339 – 341

49.  “Why non-Muslims cannot visit Makkah _ Arab News”

50. “Salaf - Islam, Quran and the Sunnah - Sayings of the Salaf”

51. aforesaid

52. “The coming of Islam (Part 4 of Ancient Arabia re-interpreted series) _ Arab News” (Geoffrey King)

53. UNESCO - Twenty-three new inscriptions on Memory of the World Register of Documentary Collections”

54.  “Earliest Islamic Kufic inscription Nomination Form”

55. “The Inscription of Zuhayr, the oldest Islamic Inscription (AH 24_AD 644) _ Robert Hoyland -”

56.Quran 3:109

57.Quran 2: 143-147

58.Quran 48:27